The Government says what children should be taught at each stage of their school life.
Children in nursery and reception years follow the Early Years Foundation Stage.
Children in Key Stage 1 [Infants] and Key Stage 2 [Juniors] follow the National Curriculum.
The National Curriculum has three core subjects:
English, Mathematics and Science
And nine foundation subjects:
History, Geography, Design and Technology, Art and Design, Music, Physical Education (PE), Computing, Religious Education [RE] and Languages.
The teaching of Religious Education is statutory in all schools.
A helpful guide for parents about the national curriculum can be found here, Parents_Complete_Guide